Humanities Information

Violence


Flashes of memory stream into my consciousness. They take me back thirty years plus. I was a boy then, a newcomer to a poor and tough neighborhood. My parents, of moderate means and daring to a fault, had decided to move there after my father had accepted an editing job in the federal government. They had taken a lease on a low-rent brick house, which was also run-down, covered in filth, and littered with trash. I do not mince my words: Previous tenants had been pigs that got along with bugs and rats.

"The house has potential," my mother had said to reassure me, seeing that I was aghast at its sordid aspects. Its one redeeming feature, besides its solid construction, was a large woody front yard, neglected, allowed to become a large dumping ground, as weedy as it was woody, but potentially attractive and pleasant, to be sure.

My mother was a hard worker with a great deal of stamina, creativity, and tastefulness. She mastered the art of doing wonders with little money. After three months of intense labor - which for the first week involved a carpenter and two garbage collectors plus two dump trucks - the house was transfigured, quite presentable, even nice, much to my amazement. It now contrasted sharply, cuttingly, with the slums at the rear of the house and on the left of it. On the right was a school and at the front, across the street, was a nunnery on a large piece of land. My parents had conveniently focused their attention on these establishments, as if the good education and good disposition of their teachers and sisters could shield us from the evils of the slums.

Needless to say, they did not. Violence was rampant in this neck of the woods and I was elected punchbag with only one dissenting vote: mine! At the root of this violence was malevolence, which grows from resentment, after one has been subjected to mistreatment. As much as my family projected an image of distinction, the neighborhood boys were malevolent and violent toward me. To them this image of distinction was an act of humiliation; their feelings were hurt and it was natural for them to hurt me. Of course it is a lot worthier to elevate oneself than to abase someone else. It is also a lot harder, and nature spontaneously levels everything the easy way. Moral excellence relates to culture, is an acquired trait, by virtue of which a human is courageous and just, worthy of praise.

One winter evening, I was crossing the field next to the rink where I had played hockey, when a gang of hoodlums encircled me like a pack of wolves. There were six of them, one of whom - a weakling who always relied on others to feel powerful - lived three doors down, east of my house, across the back street. The leader stepped forward and turned around with a snicker. "Hey shithead, come and kiss my ass." I was tempted to kick it, not kiss it. "No thanks. Please let me go; I don't care for trouble." As I was finishing my sentence, one of the boys lunged toward me from behind and shoved me forward. I dropped my hockey equipment and braced myself to fight and suffer. I was big for my age, but big is small when outnumbered by six to one.

Again the leader took the initiative; the fight was on. With several thrusts, punches, and kicks, I repelled my assailants momentarily, until I was knocked and wrestled to the ground. Fists and feet hit me everywhere, nonstop, from all directions. Suddenly I heard a menacing shout and everyone slipped in a last blow before fleeing. A brave and kind man had caught sight of their misdeed and chosen to intervene, armed with a hockey stick. I was hurt but saved.

A few days later, still aching all over, I saw the weakling, alone by his house - his hovel to be exact, which was covered with old imitation brick, torn in places, and infested with cockroaches, rats, and woodworms. His face was bruised and wet from weeping, as he screamed with rage, "Fucking bastard, fucking bitch, fucking life, fuck, fuck, fuck!" My anger was now tempered with compassion. I unclenched my fists, prompted by a desire to spare him. I could not demean myself to add pain to his pain, already so excessive that it overflowed in streams of tears and curses.

His father was an illiterate and idle drunkard who collected welfare and spent considerable time and money at the tavern. At home, slouching in an armchair, he forever watched TV and drank beer or liquor. When grossly intoxicated, he sometimes vomited before reaching the bathroom and, without cleaning up his mess, fell unconscious on his bed, the armchair, the floor, or wherever. He was also vulgar and brutal. He often battered his son and his wife, and heaped insults on them.

His wife was an abusive and sluggish woman who had grown obese from attempting to fill her inner void with chips, cookies, and pop. Day after day she wore the same tattered nightgown and constantly found reasons for bawling out her son and swiping him. She drove him insane, then used this insanity as another reason for persecuting him.

These two loathsome and pitiful parents rendered his life at home unbearable. He usually roamed the streets with fellow-sufferers from similar - miserable and violent - backgrounds. Together they ganged up and took their resentment out on other kids such as me. My aggressors, first, were victims.

My insight into the origin of violence came to me at that time and has never left me. I saw then and still see a victim in every aggressor. Some say there is such a thing as gratuitous violence, committed by individuals whose youth was favorable to all appearances. Violence for the sake of violence, an exercise in brutality at the expense of others, without provocation, past or present? I beg to differ.

Appearances are not a valid means of assessing someone's youth, whose favorableness or unfavorableness is a subjective, not objective, matter. Circumstances have no value in themselves, but in relation to people who consider them favorably or not. Attitude is here the only relevant concept. Also, brutality cannot be exercised at the expense of others unless these others are viewed heartlessly as expendable. This heartlessness is greatly suspicious, unlikely to belong to someone who regards humans with favor, thanks to a feeling of solidarity, of mutual benefit.

In my opinion, aggressiveness is triggered by hostility, without which it is dormant: a mere potentiality incapable of harm. It may include an abnormal sensitivity or intellect that intensifies or alters someone's perception of the environment. The fact remains hostility, as perceived by someone who feels painfully antagonized and proportionally victimized, is always a factor. Therefore, aggression cannot be dissociated from victimization, not only that of the victims but also that of the aggressors. These aggressors are victims of their sick minds or of the ill treatment they have endured. They deserve compassion, besides indignation.

They are liable to a punishment that ought to be effective and exemplary, not vengeful. Vengeance and violence are one and the same thing. Both are resentful and harmful. Both are reprehensible. The harm inflicted does not remedy the harm suffered; it simply compounds one harm with another, and invites yet another harm. It lengthens the chain of savagery from x (a frightening number of savage links) to x+1, potentially +2, +3, +4, etc., instead of breaking it and helping to free humanity from it. There is no worse slavery than savagery. The best course is to make every effort to get over a wrong and forgive it, while bringing the wrongdoer to justice.

In sum, justice should not serve to avenge people. It should serve to prevent crime and protect the public, by intimidating or incarcerating those who are a menace to others except under threat or behind bars. It should never push the severity of this mandate to the point of cruelty, in which case it would be a perversion of justice, an ominous sign of barbarity. On the contrary, it should be a jewel in the crown of civilization and foreshadow the coming of a better humanity, more consistent with its true nature and purpose - in a word, more humane.

The difference between severity and cruelty is radical yet subtle; it must be emphasized. Cruel law enforcers delight in the punishments they inflict and readily overstep the mark. They are vicious and blameworthy, like the criminals they punish. Law enforcers who are severe, but not cruel, administer punishments reluctantly or regard them as a necessary evil they would gladly forgo if they could. They deplore the criminal element in society and strive to neutralize it through intimidation, or incarceration as a last resort, and preferably through reformation, a fundamental change of the criminal mind for the better. Their ideal, as unattainable as it is elevated, is the supremacy of justice without the institution of justice: no threats, no prisons, only people who deeply understand and freely exercise the principle of justice.

Impossible as this supremacy is, it is usefully pursued. The institution of justice can become less and less necessary for the manifestation of justice, which can become more and more customary. This progress depends on the wisdom and willpower of its proponents who make it their duty to educate, assist, and encourage potential followers. It also presupposes that these potential followers take an active part in this endeavor. They cannot be actual followers unless they welcome this education, assistance, and encouragement, and display intelligence and determination of their own.

How much can we collectively be civilized - that is, mutually respectful and helpful, in the knowledge that this high goal can unite our wills toward a common good of colossal proportions? In other words, what is the ceiling of our possible civilization, which implies responsibility and solidarity, an elevation of life to love? Nobody knows the limit, so none should be set but the sky!

Generally, in a loving environment, human beings show humanity as naturally as fruit trees give fruit in the summer. Love is to these beings as sunshine is to these trees. It helps them grow into what they are meant to grow into (unless their nature is flawed from the start, which is an exception to the rule): beautiful and bountiful creations, as opposed to ugly and puny aberrations. Yet, beware of love; it can be possessive and manipulative, selfish and devilish! Yes, some angels have horns, unnoticeable at first sight under their pretty hair; their paradise is hell.

True love is in the image of God* (by God I simply mean the fundamental cause of everything. It brings us into existence and, within the limits of its might, supports us in our quest for fulfillment). It is a desire to nurture, not to capture. Under its divine rule, one always has the other's best interests at heart. No one, however, should be supportive to the point of being an accomplice in someone's oppressive or destructive acts of egocentricity, folly, or injustice. These evils should not be loved and served; they should be hated and combated.

Hate is legitimate toward them, whereas the people who embody them are worthy of love because they exceed them by their ability to do good. They are indeed greater than the sum of their evil ways; they include the power to improve them. Therefore hate is directed at these ways, and love at this power: It promotes the people's ability to do good. What if a person who is oppressively or destructively egocentric, foolish, or unjust never responds to this love? In that case it is lost and the life of this person shamefully amounts to a waste of soul.

By a stroke of luck, my parents were bright and warm people who helped me blossom into a joyful and respectful individual. Their love was true and so was the love of many others who took part in my life. I was also lucky enough to be a good seed. I was a strong and healthy boy, extremely lively and moderately clever, cheery and gentle-natured, though impatient and self-assertive. In my eyes, until my family moved to the poor and tough neighborhood, civility was the norm among the members of society; it made sense. Barbarity, on the other hand, was a stupefying rarity. The abused weakling gave me an understanding of barbarity - which was common in this neighborhood - and replaced my stupefaction with commiseration.

* God, in the Genesis, is first and foremost the creative and ruling force of the universe. As such, it is unspecific and uncontroversial. People of different philosophical or religious persuasions recognize with one accord that the universe is as it is because it has the power to be so. This power can be called God, in the unspecific sense of the word. It provides a legitimate answer to the ultimate question, which is twofold: "Why is there a universe instead of nothing, on the one hand, and why is there order in it instead of chaos, on the other hand?" Essentially, it is a cause that accounts for the existence and the nature of everything, while its presence remains totally unaccountable. There is no point in trying to elucidate this mystery since, to this end, one would need to postulate another cause that would itself be unaccountable, and so on ad infinitum. Consequently, the cause that gives the universe the power to exist and evolve, according to laws, is best described as a prime and timeless cause that can be ascertained through its manifestation in the form of changing things and beings, but never explained.

Laurent Grenier's writing career spans over twenty years. During this time he has broadened and deepened his worldview, by dint of much reflection and study, and in the end has crafted "A Reason for Living," his best work to date.

Official web site: http://laurentgrenier.com/ARFL.html


MORE RESOURCES:
Arts and Entertainment:Humanities Articles from EzineArticles.com
02/13/2018 08:33 AM
The Giants That Built the Pyramid of Giza
I was recently asked whether the Giants who helped to build the pyramid of Giza has the same DNA as human beings. What is the arrangement of the double helix? From the questions it became clear that the concept of the forces of animism that take on forms is yet to sit well with many people.
01/14/2018 10:21 AM
The Agwagwa Festival: A Ghanaian Traditional Cultural Event for Unearthing Young Talents
The Agwagwa Festival is commemorated by the people of Kwahu Obemeng in the Eastern Region of Ghana. It has a long celebration record of hundred and twenty-five years! The whole concept of the event originated from the ingenuity of their early forebears to improvise a pushcart that could travel within the spaces in cocoa farms, transporting coca farmers from one spot to the other in their farms. It was also used by the young ones as a medium for entertainment while riding them after a stressful farming day. The name of the festival 'Agwagwa' was gotten from the sound of the traditional improvised pushcart when it was moved.
01/04/2018 11:09 AM
Defining Australia: Australian Aboriginal Culture
One of the interesting culture in Australia is the Australian Aboriginal people, one of the two distinct Indigenous peoples of Australia. Australian Aboriginal culture can be the oldest continuous living culture on the planet which is it makes us more interested to know about them.
01/02/2018 09:51 PM
Emperor Caligula of Rome and His Horse Igcitatus
There are many weird tales that interest us and one of them is about Caligula the Roman emperor. I first read about Caligula while in college and the man interested me as a maverick emperor and sometimes wonder whether he was sane. Maybe he was and was just like Nero, another emperor who played the fiddle while he had ordered the burning of Rome.
12/14/2017 10:38 AM
Indigenous People Weaving Culture in Cambodia
Textile and styles of Bunong's weaving culture have had a long period of time, and it has been left behind by ancient ancestors, and this weaving and style are part of the identity of the culture and traditions of the Bunong indigenous people as well as the culture of Cambodian nationalism. This weaving is also important to help improve the livelihood of Bunong ethnic minority because it can help them to earn some money after they return from their farming. In particular, the farming of Cambodian Bunong Indigenous People is currently facing difficulties due to climate change and lack of agricultural techniques, which have resulted in poor yields and inadequate income for domestic supplies.
12/11/2017 07:57 AM
A Review of Michael Baxandall's Painting and Experience in 15th Century Italy
Michael Baxandall's Painting and Experience in 15th Century Italy is a seminal work in the History of Art scholarship. Its major contribution to art history is the concept of the 'period eye'. However, there are aspects of Baxandall's theses which are problematic.
12/10/2017 10:08 PM
The Challenge of Language in Lorenzo Ghiberti's Commentaries
Lorenzo Ghiberti is one of the most famous sculptors of the Italian Renaissance. His doors for Florence's Baptistery were described by Michelangelo as the Gates of Paradise. This article explores the language that Ghiberti used to describe art and the challenges we face today in gaining a clear understanding of what he meant.
12/05/2017 07:54 AM
The Rosicrucian Order and Its Teaching
There are many references available today for anyone who wants to learn more on the esoteric teachings and occultism. When you want to learn about these categories, then the term Rosicrucian is not a new word. This is an ancient society that ran in secret and it was well devoted to studying all the occult doctrines as well as the manifestation of different occult powers.
12/05/2017 07:52 AM
Understanding Rosicrucian Cultural Movement
Rosicrucianism can be understood as a cultural movement that arose within Europe back in the 17th century. This was after several texts were published purporting to announce the existence of an unknown esoteric order making seeking the knowledge so attractive to many people. Allegedly, the doctrine is built on some esoteric truths that happened in the past, but the truths remain concealed from man of an average caliber. The doctrines are said to provide greater insight into the physical universe, the spiritual realm, and to nature. There are no manifestos that elaborate more extensively on this matter, but there is a clear combination of references to the mystical Christianity, Hermeticism, and Kabbalah.
12/04/2017 09:52 AM
The Vikings And Their Influence In Ireland
What do you know about the Vikings? The Vikings conjures fearsome invaders who once controlled some parts of the world like Ireland. There are myths and legends that bring fear and sometimes reverence when the stories of these men are told.
11/27/2017 03:51 PM
Can I Study My Culture?
This article addresses the lack of minorities in the field of Anthropology. It gives a personal perspective from the author's standpoint and leaves this particular topic open for further discussion by the reader.
11/27/2017 08:26 AM
For The Viking Fans
The Vikings existed in what is now commonly known as the Viking age which was from around 790 to the 10 Century. These groups of people were mostly Scandinavians the modern day Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Besides what is commonly depicted from the recent day movies, they lived an ordinary normal life which was then, comprised of living in the wild and regular warfare to conquer more territories. They inhabited most parts of North of the Atlantic and continued their spread North of Africa and the Eastern part of Russia.
10/23/2017 09:48 AM
The Tomahawk
The natural world is filled with wonders. When you go outdoors, marvel at the sky, listen to the wind pass through trees, admire the song and appearance of birds, animals, and insects. Don't forget to look at the ground, both for your safety and to find something interesting like the remains of a native American culture that passed long ago.
10/06/2017 03:38 PM
Mahabharat - A Battle of Righteousness
Lust to possess immeasurable materialistic wealth is a very cruel aspect of human nature. History is the witness, this never- ending aspiration of amassing incalculable wealth has ruined great dynasties. Greed is like a fire that burns furiously in the initial stages but later converts into inferno.
09/25/2017 08:44 AM
A Condensed History of the North American Fur Trade
We look at how the necessities of the earliest explorers and pioneers of North America influenced their cooking and meal preparation habits and how those have evolved into contemporary meal preparation techniques made possible by the convenience and capabilities of modern high tech kitchen appliances. In the process, we examine how what once was a demanding chore born of survival in a vast unknown wilderness has become a challenging art and, for some, a delightful hobby.
09/12/2017 07:57 AM
Transportation In Ancient Rome
Transportation in the Roman empire was done by sail boats or horse drawn wagons. The Romans borrowed from cultures before them like the Greeks. They did not really improve ship building and their wagons were quite primitive. The postal service, however, was remarkable. Through organizing estafettes with horses, the speed of mail could not be improved until modern times.
09/12/2017 07:56 AM
Roman Road Construction
The ancient Romans were quite adept at constructing roads. To a certain extent they used science to accomplish that. The main purpose was to connect the vast regions of the empire. Therefore the roads were used for military and commercial goals.
08/10/2017 07:46 AM
How Many Talented People Have Reincarnated?
Watching America's got talent clip on YouTube when a little girl with the voice of an adult became the chosen one made me think of how many singers have reincarnated. The process by which I passed from my last life to this one gave me insight into the fact that everyone has returned. We are in the last days and the prophecies state that the graves will give up their dead at this time.
08/08/2017 07:45 AM
Is Micky Mouse Real?
If someone asked me that question my thoughts would be that they are nuts. Of course it's not real but it makes a fortune for Walt Disney. The question is why?
07/22/2017 08:55 AM
What Is The New Age Movement?
If one remembers the 70's and 80's they would be aware of a shift from the conventional into trends inspired by Eastern cultures. Such things as the performance of The Age of Aquarius and other works lifted the spirits out of the doldrums and overturned the old for a new way of living. First came the pill that liberated women, followed by an open attitude to partnerships without marriage and acceptance of the LGBT trend based on love.
05/19/2017 07:53 AM
Reflections on Homi Baba's Post Colonial Criticism
This is an introduction about Homi Baba's ideas on Post Colonial Criticism. His ideas like Hybridization, Mimicry, Uncanny, Anxiety and Ambivalence have been analyzed.
05/02/2017 11:24 AM
Pongal: A Tamil Festival of Showing Gratitude to Cattle and Sun
Pongal is a harvest festival in Tamil Nadu, the south most state of India. It is also known as "Thai Pongal". The word 'Thai' is one of the months name in Tamil language. In general, people across the state reap crops cultivated in their own lands in January of every year. Then they celebrate the Pongal to convey their gratitude to the Sun and Cattle those who helped for cultivation. There is a famous quote in Tamil Language called "thai piranthaal vazhi pirakkum" which means "all the good things will start to happen once the month Thai (January) begins / Every problem will be resolved in a good way."
05/01/2017 10:58 AM
The African-American's Journey to Al-Islam
For over 60 years African-Americans have been celebrating Black History month and yet not to mention, publicized, or have in our studies in our institutions about the Islamic movement in the United States due to the fact that the majority of American Muslims are African Americans. his article is historical timeline of the African Americans coming to the religion of Al-Islam.
04/21/2017 10:23 AM
Brief Persian History or Persian Literature
Persian history is one of the most ancient history of the world. It produced a number of classical and modern poet, who worked day and night for its survival. Persian formally spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (Dari) and Tajikistan. Therefore, more than 110 million Persian speaking persons in the world.
04/20/2017 10:21 AM
Today And Tomorrow Is A Holiday
Saturday and Sunday are calendar holidays. Period. But, contrary to the popular notion, these holidays are never a time for celebration.
04/19/2017 09:38 AM
Why The Name India Came Into Existence - My Understanding
I have not witnessed the struggle for Indian freedom. But I have learned from the justice. So what is relevant now is not the name of the great land of worship but why the name is so relevant for its inhabitants. I wrote the post below based on a certain understanding of knowledge. So now I want to expand the correspondence for the interest of all.
04/16/2017 04:12 PM
Brief History of Hakim Abul Qasim Ferdowsi and Shahnameh-E-Ferdowsi
Hakim-Abu-Al Qasim Ferdowsi is a renowned Persian poet and author of historical poetry book "Shahnameh-e-Ferdowsi". He was born probably in 935 C.E (date of birth is not conformed) in village REGBAN nearby area of Tus, Tahiran and died in 1040.
03/03/2017 08:09 AM
The Scotsman
In the years following the fall of Camelot the continued struggle to unite England waged on. To the north in Scotland warring factions of Vikings continued their brutal and savage pillaging of local inhabitants. For over three hundred years up until the 9th century both England and Scotland were so divided wars and bloodshed was a fact of life.
02/27/2017 08:14 AM
What Is Theology? Demystifying A Scary Practice
Does the word "theology" ever scare you or make you wonder why your pastor or friend uses it? Do you ever find yourself asking or saying "we just should have the theology of the Bible and nothing else?" In this article I discuss the importance of theology, and more importantly, Christian theology and its importance for Christians today who happen to engage in it without ever thinking.
02/21/2017 11:42 AM
Hazarat Nizamuddin Dargah - What Was and What Is
A story of the greatest Sufi saint - Hazrat Nizzamuddin Auliya. His devotion for the love and care for mankind will have an eternal presence at his shrine.
02/18/2017 05:30 PM
Debunking Three Myths About George Washington
George Washington, our nation's first president is one of the most prominent figures in American history. For many Americans, he is known as the "Father of our Nation" because he became the greatest American legend involved in the freedom and development of our country in numerous ways: military hero, first president, a signer of the American Declaration of Independence, just to name a few. What happened to such men like Washington is that myths were created that enhanced fame and honor.
02/14/2017 11:40 AM
The Secret Wishes Of The Great Villain 'RAVANA'
You Say Ravana Was A Villain? Yes, he may be! But from which activities did we judge it? Is it because he abducted Sita? Probably! How will you judge him to be, after hearing his wishes? Let's check the wishes the Lanka king - Ravana had.
02/14/2017 08:01 AM
Trading Youth For Experience, That Is Life
We all do it. We all trade youth for experience, and through trial, error and temporary failure, we ultimately succeed or die with regret wishing that we had succeeded.
01/26/2017 11:39 AM
Tipu Sultan - The Ruler of Mysore
Tipu Sultan the "Tiger of Mysore" a ruler of Mysore from 1750 to 1799. Tipu Sultan was a well famous administrator of Mysore at the same time he was a Scholar, Soldier, and Poet. Tipu Sultan introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including the introduction of a new coinage, a new Maludi lunisolar calendar, and a new land revenue system, initiating the growth of Mysore silk industry. Tipu expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets which he deployed in his resistance against military advances of the British. Tipu won important victories against the British in the second Anglo-Mysore war. In the third Anglo-Mysore war, Tipu Sultan was forced into a humiliating treaty (a written agreement between two states), losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. In the fourth Anglo-Mysore war, the combined forces of the British East India Company, Maratha's and the Nizam of Hyderabad defeated Tipu and he was killed on 4th May 1799.
01/20/2017 11:05 AM
The Role of Honor
'The honor is found in the end and not the means'. This statement is very debatable and triggers controversy as some people may see it as the other way around; the honor is found in the means and not the end. Now before we go further let's pause for a while and peer in to the word honor itself.
01/12/2017 09:50 AM
African Tribes and How to Make Them
The year's 2099, humanity's somehow managed not to blow itself up yet. It's been 96 years since the human genome was sequenced and Dolly the sheep was cloned. Pity that all the sheep went extinct sometime during 2049.
01/11/2017 11:24 AM
Top 5 Interesting Facts About Louis XIV
Onlookers were said to have mocked and sneered as Louis XIV's funeral carriage passed through the streets of Versailles on a journey to his final burial ground. He would pass away just a few days short of his 77th birthday. He had led a spectacularly long life in a time of still very limited medical knowledge. His strong body would eventually die after it was half eaten with gangrene. But no matter how unpopular he was at that time, this figure has undoubtedly come to symbolize the French monarchy at it's very peak.
12/19/2016 08:24 AM
The Solitary Genius Often Has Difficulty Relating To Average People
Those with extremely high IQs often have trouble relating to average or slightly above average IQ humans, as they themselves are Human+ so to speak. It's hard to relate to folks that seem to use a different thought process or cannot seem to process thought at all, or only to a limited degree. Often the resident genius finds it odd that people know things or have knowledge or understanding of things that typically are not known to other average humans, it surprises the genius when they encounter such anomalies, even though they themselves are anomalies. Let's discuss this.
12/14/2016 08:04 AM
Ayn Rand's Objectivism, Empathy and Socialism
Being selfish is innate. Look at a little kid; "I want this," or that. It isn't until they learn that sharing has positives to it. So, that means it is nurture not nature. All species and biological life is selfish, it tries to do the least and get the most, conserve its energy, all life does that, it is simply the way of things? So is Ayn Rand's philosophy 'radical' no, I would submit to you that it is just obvious. It is observable, repeatable, and is a viable observation of life everything from plants with leaves trying to outdo other plants for sunlight, roots for water - bacteria feeds of the host or works with the host for its best interests - viruses same. See? It's natural and normal.
12/11/2016 06:08 PM
Define Poor In The USA
During this past 2016 Presidential Election we sure heard a lot about the poor. On the democrat side we heard from Bernie Sanders with quite the following, and again from the democrat mainstay Hillary Clinton as well. Apparently, none connected better with the poor and working middle class than Donald Trump. Even though this election is over the issues about poverty in the United States are from over. Still, I ask, how can we even have a legitimate discussion if we don't have a clear definition of what "poor" is in America? I mean the government has one definition - in 2015 that number for a single person was $12,082 annually, but is a number adequate?
12/01/2016 11:34 AM
Durga Puja - Nothing Short of a Bienalle?
If you've never been pandal-hopping in Kolkata, you have never seen this side of the City of Joy. As Durga Puja arrives, the city gears up to a whole new level of excitement with colourful lights setting the stage for the most sought after festival of the city. From the brightly lit alleys, to the sound of the dhak and gong peeling through the night and mouth-watering delicacies available at almost every street corner, the bar of excellence is only being raised with each passing year.
11/03/2016 10:48 PM
The Mystery of Queen Elizabeth I's Possible Imposter
One of history's most unusual conspiracy theories involved Queen Elizabeth I, the daughter of England's King Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn. During the first half of the sixteenth century, Elizabeth was born to the tyrannical English king. When she was about ten years old, she was taken from Henry's court in plague-ridden London to Bisley, a small town Southwest of London, because he wanted to protect her from getting sick.
11/02/2016 08:48 AM
The Shadow Rider
Out of the pages of history galloping across the western plains of the Old West rides a lone crusader bringing law and order to an otherwise lawless land. With stealth and cunning many an outlaw met his fate. Horace Mann was broad of shoulder and narrow at the hip and everywhere he went the long arm of the law was not far away.
10/31/2016 07:50 AM
King Henry VIII and His Six Miserable Wives
King Henry VIII was England's king five centuries ago. He was a cruel king who managed to have six wives. My essay explains the life with Henry and why his wives were miserable.
10/11/2016 12:35 PM
King Louis's Fragrant Kingdom - The Perfumed Court of Obsession
Not to alarm you but what historians claim that our ancestors hesitated to bathe is quite true. Hygiene among the noble people was rare to find and thus we can only imagine what they would have smelled like. But trust me, it wasn't that bad after all because we are talking about King Louis's court and it was known for its extensive use of perfumes and everything that smelled pleasant. What few of us are aware of is that our nobility had a great fear of water. People back then had a common belief that diseases travelled through water. Now this is what led them to stay away from it and eventually prevented them from bathing. They thought that the less they bathed the healthier they would stay. They couldn't be further from the truth but we know that now, so let's come them some slack this time. This is the reason that during King Louis XIV's reign perfumes were used on a wide scale to scent every nook and corner of the castle and whatever possible.This actually happened and the air in and around the castle became so heavy with fragrance that the French court gradually came to
10/05/2016 12:57 PM
Typology of the Gaze
The gaze has become prominent in Psychoanalytic Literature. The psychoanalytic gaze is a phallic one. Here in this article, I have introduced various typologies of the gaze.
10/03/2016 09:25 AM
The Oregon Trail Ruts
History comes alive when you find evidence of it. I still remember the moment that I found an arrowhead lost by a Native American long before my life began. The homesteaders who traveled west on the Oregon Trail left their mark too.
09/29/2016 08:46 AM
Why Studying Geography Is Important
Many readers may be surprised or even amused by the title of this article, but amongst the communities we live in, individual perceptions can differ regarding how important it is to actually study Geography. In an age where many students need to find employment in a profession that offers a long term future, Geography is one subject many students should consider studying.
09/28/2016 12:06 PM
The Wounded Artist
Inspired by my personal struggles, this article is dedicated to those artists injured by early abuse and the dark underbelly of the complex social and political terrain of the art industry. The article addresses the painful hurdles the artist encounters, and the psychic toll and resultant wounds incurred. Likewise, it also identifies ways to champion the artist, so that these struggles and wounds can ultimately morph into wisdom, power, and success.
09/23/2016 08:56 AM
Creation of a Work Of Art
Many things in our world are artificial even agriculture. Our changes in nature can be considered art. Permaculture is artificial but imitates Nature. This way it works together with nature, instead of against it.


home | site map |